Tag Archives: metric spaces

Topology: Sequentially Compact Spaces and Compact Spaces

We’ve arrived at possibly the most confusing notion in topology/analysis. First, we wish to fulfil an earlier promise: to prove that if C is a closed and bounded subset of R and f : R → R is continuous, then f(C) is closed and bounded. [ As … Continue reading

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Topology: Complete Metric Spaces

[ This article was updated on 8 Mar 13; the universal property is now in terms of Cauchy-continuous maps. ]  On an intuitive level, a complete metric space is one where there are “no gaps”. Formally, we have: Definition. A … Continue reading

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Topology: Hausdorff Spaces and Dense Subsets

Hausdorff Spaces Recall that we’d like a condition on a topological space X such that if a sequence converges, its limit is unique. A sufficient condition is given by the following: Definition. A topological space X is said to be Hausdorff if … Continue reading

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Topology: Cauchy Sequences and Uniform Continuity

 [ Updated on 8 Mar 13 to include Cauchy-continuity and added answers to exercises. ] We wish to generalise the concept of Cauchy sequences to metric spaces. Recall that on an intuitive level, a Cauchy sequence is one where the … Continue reading

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Topology: Nets and Points of Accumulation

Recall that a sequence in a topological space X converges to a in X if the function f : N* → X which takes is continuous at . Unrolling the definition, it means that for any open subset U of X containing a, the set contains (N, ∞] for some N. In … Continue reading

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Topology: Continuous Maps

Continuity in Metric Spaces Following the case of real analysis, let’s define continuous functions via the usual ε-δ definition. Definition. Let (X, d) and (Y, d’) be two metric spaces. A function f : X → Y is said to be … Continue reading

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Topology: Product Spaces (I)

In this article, we consider the product of two topological spaces. To motivate our definition, we first begin with metric spaces (X, dX) and (Y, dY). Letting Z = X × Y be the set-theoretic product, we wish to define a metric on Z from dX and … Continue reading

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