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Tag Archives: topology
Commutative Algebra 13
Zariski Topology for Rings In this article, we generalize earlier results in algebraic geometry to apply to general rings. Recall that points on an affine variety V correspond to maximal ideals . For general rings, we have to switch to … Continue reading
Posted in Advanced Algebra
Tagged homomorphism, maximal ideals, prime ideals, rings, spectrum, topology, zariski topology
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Commutative Algebra 5
Morphisms in Algebraic Geometry Next we study the “nice” functions between closed subspaces of . Definition. Suppose and are closed subsets. A morphism is a function which can be expressed as: for some polynomials . We also say f is a regular … Continue reading
Posted in Advanced Algebra
Tagged algebraic geometry, continuity, ideals, morphisms, rings, topology
2 Comments
Commutative Algebra 3
Algebraic Geometry Concepts We have decided to introduce, at this early point, some basics of algebraic geometry in order to motivate the later concepts. In summary, algebraic geometry studies solutions to polynomial equations over a field. First we consider a … Continue reading
Posted in Advanced Algebra
Tagged algebraic geometry, commutative rings, ideals, nullstellensatz, radical ideals, rings, topology, zariski topology
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From Euler Characteristics to Cohomology (II)
Boundary Maps Here’s a brief recap of the previous article: we learnt that in refining a cell decomposition of an object M, we can, at each step, pick an idimensional cell and divide it in two. In this way, we … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, betti numbers, cell complexes, cellular homology, euler characteristics, homology, simplicial complexes, topology
2 Comments
From Euler Characteristics to Cohomology (I)
[ Warning: this is primarily an expository article, so the proofs are not airtight, but they should be sufficiently convincing. ] The five platonic solids were wellknown among the ancient Greeks (V, E, F denote the number of vertices, edges and faces respectively): … Continue reading
Topology: More on Algebra and Topology
We’ve arrived at the domain where topology meets algebra. Thus we have to proceed carefully to ensure that the topology of our algebraic constructions are wellbehaved. Let’s look at topological groups again. Our first task is to show that the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged algebra, connected spaces, groups, isomorphism theorems, open maps, orthogonal groups, quotient topology, rings, topology
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Topology: Quotients of Topological Groups
Topology for Coset Space This is really a continuation from the previous article. Let G be a topological group and H a subgroup of G. The collection of left cosets G/H is then given the quotient topology. This quotient space, however, satisfies an additional … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, group quotients, open maps, quotient topology, topological groups, topology, universal properties
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Topology: Quotient Topology and Gluing
In topology, there’s the concept of gluing points or subspaces together. For example, take the closed interval X = [0, 1] and glue the endpoints 0 and 1 together. Pictorially, we get: That looks like a circle, but to prove it’s … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, gluing, klein bottle, mobius strip, quotient topology, topological groups, topology, universal properties
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Topology: Topological Groups
This article assumes you know some basic group theory. The motivation here is to consider groups whose underlying operations are continuous with respect to its topology. Definition. A topological group G is a group with an underlying topology such that: the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, compact sets, connected components, groups, homeomorphisms, separation axioms, topological groups, topology
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Topology: Separation Axioms
Motivation The separation axioms attempt to answer the following. Question. Given a topological space X, how far is it from being metrisable? We had a hint earlier: all metric spaces are Hausdorff, i.e. distinct points can be separated by two … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, Hausdorff, metrisable topology, normal, regular, separation axioms, T1, T2, T3, T4, topology, urysohn's lemma, urysohn's metrisation theorem
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