# Tag Archives: limits

## Commutative Algebra 55

Exactness of Completion Throughout this article, A denotes a filtered ring. Proposition 1. Let be a short exact sequence of A-modules. Suppose M is filtered, inducing filtrations on N and P. Then is also exact as -modules. Proof Without loss of … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 54

Filtered Rings Definition. Let A be a ring. A filtration on A is a sequence of additive subgroups such that for any . A filtered ring is a ring with a designated filtration. Note Since , in fact each is … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 52

Direct Limits of Rings Let be a directed system of rings. Regard them as a directed system of abelian groups (i.e. ℤ-modules) and take the direct limit A. Proposition 1. The abelian group A has a natural structure of a … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 51

Limits Are Left-Exact By example 6 and proposition 2 in the previous article, one is inclined to conclude that taking the colimit in is a right-exact functor, but there is a rather huge issue here: the functors are between and … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 50

Adjoint Functors Adjoint functors are a general construct often used for describing universal properties (among other things). Take two categories and . Definition. Covariant functors and are said to be adjoint if we have isomorphisms which are natural in A and … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 49

Morphism of Diagrams Throughout this article denotes a category and J is an index category. Definition Given diagrams , a morphism is a natural transformation . Thus we have the category of all diagrams in of type J, which we … Continue reading

## Topology: Nets and Points of Accumulation

Recall that a sequence in a topological space X converges to a in X if the function f : N* → X which takes is continuous at . Unrolling the definition, it means that for any open subset U of X containing a, the set contains (N, ∞] for some N. In … Continue reading

## Topology: Limits and Convergence

Following what we did for real analysis, we have the following definition of limits. Definition of Limits. Let X, Y be topological spaces and . If  f : X-{a} → Y is a function, then we write if the function: is … Continue reading