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Tag Archives: product topology
Topology: Connected Spaces
Let X be a topological space. Recall that if U is a clopen (i.e. open and closed) subset of X, then X is the topological disjoint union of U and X–U. Hence, if we assume X cannot be decomposed any further, there’re no nontrivial clopen subsets of X. … Continue reading
Topology: Product Spaces (II)
The Box Topology Following an earlier article on products of two topological spaces, we’ll now talk about a product of possibly infinitely many topological spaces. Suppose is a collection of topological spaces indexed by I, and we wish to define … Continue reading
Topology: Interior
Let Y be a subset of a topological space X. In the previous article, we defined the closure of Y as the smallest closed subset of X containing Y. Dually, we shall now define the interior of Y to be the largest open subset contained in … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, boundaries, closures, interiors, product topology, subspaces, topology
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Topology: Closure
Suppose Y is a subset of a topological space X. We define cl(Y) to be the “smallest” closed subset containing Y. Its formal definition is as follows. Let Σ be the collection of all closed subsets containing Y. Note that , so Σ is not empty. … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, closed balls, closed subsets, closures, open balls, points of accumulation, product topology, topology
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Topology: Cauchy Sequences and Uniform Continuity
[ Updated on 8 Mar 13 to include Cauchycontinuity and added answers to exercises. ] We wish to generalise the concept of Cauchy sequences to metric spaces. Recall that on an intuitive level, a Cauchy sequence is one where the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, cauchy sequences, cauchycontinuity, metric spaces, product topology, topology, uniform continuity
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Topology: Continuous Maps
Continuity in Metric Spaces Following the case of real analysis, let’s define continuous functions via the usual εδ definition. Definition. Let (X, d) and (Y, d’) be two metric spaces. A function f : X → Y is said to be … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, continuity, disjoint union topology, homeomorphism, metric spaces, product topology, subspaces, topology
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Topology: Disjoint Unions
Disjoint Unions Let X and Y be topological spaces and be a settheoretic disjoint union. We wish to define a topology on Z in a most natural way. Definition. The topology on is defined to be: It’s almost trivial to check that this … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, bases, connected spaces, disjoint union topology, metrisable topology, product topology, subbases, topology
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Topology: Product Spaces (I)
In this article, we consider the product of two topological spaces. To motivate our definition, we first begin with metric spaces (X, dX) and (Y, dY). Letting Z = X × Y be the settheoretic product, we wish to define a metric on Z from dX and … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, metric spaces, product topology, subspaces, topology, torus
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