# Category Archives: Notes

## Modular Representation Theory (IV)

Continuing our discussion of modular representation theory, we will now discuss block theory. Previously, we saw that in any ring R, there is at most one way to write where is a set of orthogonal and centrally primitive idempotents. If such an … Continue reading

## Idempotents and Decomposition

Let R be a general ring, not necessarily commutative. An element x∈R is said to be idempotent if x2 = x. Note An endomorphism f of an R-module M (i.e. ) is an idempotent if and only if f is a projection, i.e. M = ker(f) ⊕ im(f) and f … Continue reading

## Modular Representation Theory (III)

Let’s work out some explicit examples of modular characters. First, we have a summary of the main results. Let be the modular characters of the simple k[G]-modules; they form a basis of Let  be those of the projective indecomposable k[G]-modules; they form a basis … Continue reading

## Modular Representation Theory (II)

We continue our discussion of modular representations; recall that all modules are finitely-generated even if we do not explicitly say so. First, we introduce a new notation: for each projective finitely-generated k[G]-module P, we have a unique projective finitely-generated R[G]-module denoted for which … Continue reading

## Modular Representation Theory (I)

Let K be a field and G a finite group. We know that when char(K) does not divide |G|, the group algebra K[G] is semisimple. Conversely we have: Proposition. If char(K) divides |G|, then K[G] is not semisimple. Proof Let , a two-sided … Continue reading

## Projective Modules and the Grothendieck Group

This is a continuation of the previous article. Throughout this article, R is an artinian ring (and hence noetherian) and all modules are finitely-generated. Let K(R) be the Grothendieck group of all finitely-generated R-modules; K(R) is the free abelian group generated by [M] for simple … Continue reading

## Projective Modules and Artinian Rings

Projective Modules Recall that Hom(M, -) is left-exact: for any module M and exact , we get an exact sequence Definition. A module M is projective if Hom(M, -) is exact, i.e. if for any surjective N→N”, the resulting HomR(M, N) → HomR(M, N”) is … Continue reading

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## Tensor Product over Noncommutative Rings

Following the earlier article on tensor products of vector spaces, we will now look at tensor products of modules over a ring R, not necessarily commutative. It turns out we have to distinguish between left and right modules now. Indeed recall … Continue reading