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Monthly Archives: March 2013
Topology: More on Algebra and Topology
We’ve arrived at the domain where topology meets algebra. Thus we have to proceed carefully to ensure that the topology of our algebraic constructions are wellbehaved. Let’s look at topological groups again. Our first task is to show that the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged algebra, connected spaces, groups, isomorphism theorems, open maps, orthogonal groups, quotient topology, rings, topology
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Topology: Quotients of Topological Groups
Topology for Coset Space This is really a continuation from the previous article. Let G be a topological group and H a subgroup of G. The collection of left cosets G/H is then given the quotient topology. This quotient space, however, satisfies an additional … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, group quotients, open maps, quotient topology, topological groups, topology, universal properties
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Topology: Quotient Topology and Gluing
In topology, there’s the concept of gluing points or subspaces together. For example, take the closed interval X = [0, 1] and glue the endpoints 0 and 1 together. Pictorially, we get: That looks like a circle, but to prove it’s … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, gluing, klein bottle, mobius strip, quotient topology, topological groups, topology, universal properties
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Topology: Topological Groups
This article assumes you know some basic group theory. The motivation here is to consider groups whose underlying operations are continuous with respect to its topology. Definition. A topological group G is a group with an underlying topology such that: the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, compact sets, connected components, groups, homeomorphisms, separation axioms, topological groups, topology
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Topology: Separation Axioms
Motivation The separation axioms attempt to answer the following. Question. Given a topological space X, how far is it from being metrisable? We had a hint earlier: all metric spaces are Hausdorff, i.e. distinct points can be separated by two … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, Hausdorff, metrisable topology, normal, regular, separation axioms, T1, T2, T3, T4, topology, urysohn's lemma, urysohn's metrisation theorem
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Topology: Locally Connected and Locally PathConnected Spaces
Locally Connected Spaces Recall that each topological space X is the settheoretic disjoint union of its connected components, but in general (e.g. for X=Q) fails to be the topological disjoint union. The problem is that the connected components in general aren’t open … Continue reading
Topology: PathConnected Spaces
A related notion of connectedness is this: Definition. A path on a topological space X is a continuous map The path is said to connect x and y in X if f(0)=x and f(1)=y. X is said to be pathconnected if any two points … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, connected components, connected spaces, pathconnected components, pathconnected spaces, topology
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Topology: Connected Spaces
Let X be a topological space. Recall that if U is a clopen (i.e. open and closed) subset of X, then X is the topological disjoint union of U and X–U. Hence, if we assume X cannot be decomposed any further, there’re no nontrivial clopen subsets of X. … Continue reading
Topology: OnePoint Compactification and Locally Compact Spaces
Compactifications There’re lots of similarities between completeness and compactness, beyond the superficial resemblance of the words. For example, a closed subset of a compact (resp. complete) space is also compact (resp. complete). Two differences though: compactness is a topological concept … Continue reading