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Monthly Archives: January 2013
Topology: Continuous Maps
Continuity in Metric Spaces Following the case of real analysis, let’s define continuous functions via the usual εδ definition. Definition. Let (X, d) and (Y, d’) be two metric spaces. A function f : X → Y is said to be … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, continuity, disjoint union topology, homeomorphism, metric spaces, product topology, subspaces, topology
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Topology: Disjoint Unions
Disjoint Unions Let X and Y be topological spaces and be a settheoretic disjoint union. We wish to define a topology on Z in a most natural way. Definition. The topology on is defined to be: It’s almost trivial to check that this … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, bases, connected spaces, disjoint union topology, metrisable topology, product topology, subbases, topology
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Topology: Product Spaces (I)
In this article, we consider the product of two topological spaces. To motivate our definition, we first begin with metric spaces (X, dX) and (Y, dY). Letting Z = X × Y be the settheoretic product, we wish to define a metric on Z from dX and … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, metric spaces, product topology, subspaces, topology, torus
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Topology: Subspaces
First, suppose (X, d) is a metric space. If Y is a subset of X, then one can restrict the metric to , i.e. for any , we set d’(y, y’) := d(y, y’). It’s not hard to show that the resulting function is a metric on Y. … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, bases, clopen sets, homeomorphisms, metric spaces, subbases, subspaces, topology
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Topology: Bases and Subbases
Bases Recall that though a subring or ideal of a ring may be rather huge, it often suffices to specify just a few elements which will generate the subring or ideal. Likewise, in a topology, one can specify a few … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged bases, furstenberg's proof, generated topology, infinitude of primes, open balls, open subsets, subbases, topology
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Topology: Basic Definitions
Motivation and Definition While studying analysis, one notices that many important concepts can be defined in terms of “open sets”. One gets the inkling that this concept is critical in forming our notions of continuity, limits etc. In this article, we … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged analysis, closed subsets, discrete topology, metric spaces, open balls, open subsets, topology, topoloical equivalence
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Burnside’s Lemma and Polya Enumeration Theorem (1)
[ Note: this article assumes you know some rudimentary theory of group actions. ] Let’s consider the following combinatorial problem. Problem. ABC is a given equilateral triangle. We wish to colour each of the three vertices A, B and C by … Continue reading
Basic Analysis: Closed Subsets and Uniform Continuity
Let’s consider another question: suppose f : D → R is continuous, where D is a subset of R. If (xn) is a sequence in D converging to some real L, is it true that (f(xn)) is also convergent? Now if L is in D, then we know that (f(xn)) → (f(L)). … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, analysis, closed subsets, continuity, points of accumulation, uniform continuity, uniform convergence
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