
Recent Posts
Archives
 May 2020
 April 2020
 March 2020
 June 2018
 July 2016
 June 2016
 May 2016
 March 2015
 February 2015
 January 2015
 December 2014
 December 2013
 November 2013
 July 2013
 June 2013
 May 2013
 March 2013
 February 2013
 January 2013
 December 2012
 November 2012
 October 2012
 September 2012
 August 2012
 April 2012
 March 2012
 February 2012
 January 2012
 December 2011
 November 2011
 October 2011
Categories
Meta
Pages
Monthly Archives: February 2013
Topology: Finite Intersection Property (Omake)
The whole point of this article is the following seemingly trivial observation. Theorem. A topological space X is compact if and only if it satisfies the finite intersection property (F.I.P.): if is a collection of closed subsets of X such that … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, compact spaces, finite intersection property, four colour theorem, topology
Leave a comment
Topology: More on Compact Spaces
In the previous article, we defined compact spaces as those where every open cover has a finite subcover, i.e. if then we can find a finite set of indices such that On an intuitive level, one should imagine a compact … Continue reading
Topology: Sequentially Compact Spaces and Compact Spaces
We’ve arrived at possibly the most confusing notion in topology/analysis. First, we wish to fulfil an earlier promise: to prove that if C is a closed and bounded subset of R and f : R → R is continuous, then f(C) is closed and bounded. [ As … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged compact spaces, metric spaces, nets, sequences, sequentially compact spaces, subnets
4 Comments
Topology: Complete Metric Spaces
[ This article was updated on 8 Mar 13; the universal property is now in terms of Cauchycontinuous maps. ] On an intuitive level, a complete metric space is one where there are “no gaps”. Formally, we have: Definition. A … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, cauchy sequences, complete metric spaces, completion, metric spaces, topology, universal properties
11 Comments
Topology: Hausdorff Spaces and Dense Subsets
Hausdorff Spaces Recall that we’d like a condition on a topological space X such that if a sequence converges, its limit is unique. A sufficient condition is given by the following: Definition. A topological space X is said to be Hausdorff if … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, continuity, dense subsets, Hausdorff, metric spaces, nets, topology
4 Comments
Topology: Product Spaces (II)
The Box Topology Following an earlier article on products of two topological spaces, we’ll now talk about a product of possibly infinitely many topological spaces. Suppose is a collection of topological spaces indexed by I, and we wish to define … Continue reading
Topology: Interior
Let Y be a subset of a topological space X. In the previous article, we defined the closure of Y as the smallest closed subset of X containing Y. Dually, we shall now define the interior of Y to be the largest open subset contained in … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, boundaries, closures, interiors, product topology, subspaces, topology
2 Comments
Topology: Closure
Suppose Y is a subset of a topological space X. We define cl(Y) to be the “smallest” closed subset containing Y. Its formal definition is as follows. Let Σ be the collection of all closed subsets containing Y. Note that , so Σ is not empty. … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, closed balls, closed subsets, closures, open balls, points of accumulation, product topology, topology
Leave a comment
Thoughts on a Problem III
I saw an interesting problem recently and can’t resist writing it up. The thought process for this problem was exceedingly unusual as you’ll see later. First, here’s the source: But here’s the full problem (rephrased a little) if you’d rather … Continue reading
Topology: Cauchy Sequences and Uniform Continuity
[ Updated on 8 Mar 13 to include Cauchycontinuity and added answers to exercises. ] We wish to generalise the concept of Cauchy sequences to metric spaces. Recall that on an intuitive level, a Cauchy sequence is one where the … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged advanced, cauchy sequences, cauchycontinuity, metric spaces, product topology, topology, uniform continuity
Leave a comment