Tag Archives: left-exact

Commutative Algebra 52

Direct Limits of Rings Let be a directed system of rings. Regard them as a directed system of abelian groups (i.e. ℤ-modules) and take the direct limit A. Proposition 1. The abelian group A has a natural structure of a … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 51

Limits Are Left-Exact By example 6 and proposition 2 in the previous article, one is inclined to conclude that taking the colimit in is a right-exact functor, but there is a rather huge issue here: the functors are between and … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 50

Adjoint Functors Adjoint functors are a general construct often used for describing universal properties (among other things). Take two categories and . Definition. Covariant functors and are said to be adjoint if we have isomorphisms which are natural in A and … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 27

Free Modules All modules are over a fixed ring A. We already mentioned finite free modules earlier. Here we will consider general free modules. Definition. Let be any set. The free A-module on I is a direct sum of copies of … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 26

Left-Exact Functors We saw (in theorem 1 here) that the localization functor is exact, which gave us a whole slew of nice properties, including preservation of submodules, quotient modules, finite intersection/sum, etc. However, exactness is often too much to ask … Continue reading

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Projective Modules and Artinian Rings

Projective Modules Recall that Hom(M, -) is left-exact: for any module M and exact , we get an exact sequence Definition. A module M is projective if Hom(M, -) is exact, i.e. if for any surjective N→N”, the resulting HomR(M, N) → HomR(M, N”) is … Continue reading

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Tensor Product over Noncommutative Rings

Following the earlier article on tensor products of vector spaces, we will now look at tensor products of modules over a ring R, not necessarily commutative. It turns out we have to distinguish between left and right modules now. Indeed recall … Continue reading

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Hom Functor

Fret not if you’re unfamiliar with the term functor; it’s a concept in category theory we will use implicitly without delving into the specific definition. This topic is, unfortunately, a little on the dry side but it’s a necessary evil to get … Continue reading

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