Tag Archives: modules

Commutative Algebra 10

Algebras Over a Ring Let A be any ring; we would like to look at A-modules with a compatible ring structure. Definition. An –algebra is an -module , together with a multiplication operator such that becomes a commutative ring (with 1); multiplication … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 9

Direct Sums and Direct Products Recall that for a ring A, a sequence of A-modules gives the A-module where the operations are defined component-wise. In this article, we will generalize the construction to an infinite collection of modules. Throughout this article, let denote … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 8

Generated Submodule Since the intersection of an arbitrary family of submodules of M is a submodule, we have the concept of a submodule generated by a subset. Definition. Given any subset , let denote the set of all submodules of M containing … Continue reading

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Commutative Algebra 7

Modules Having dipped our toes into algebraic geometry, we are back in commutative algebra. Next we would like to introduce “linear algebra” over a ring A. Most of the proofs should pose no difficulty to the reader so we will … Continue reading

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Idempotents and Decomposition

Let R be a general ring, not necessarily commutative. An element x∈R is said to be idempotent if x2 = x. Note An endomorphism f of an R-module M (i.e. ) is an idempotent if and only if f is a projection, i.e. M = ker(f) ⊕ im(f) and f … Continue reading

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Tensor Product over Noncommutative Rings

Following the earlier article on tensor products of vector spaces, we will now look at tensor products of modules over a ring R, not necessarily commutative. It turns out we have to distinguish between left and right modules now. Indeed recall … Continue reading

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Hom Functor

Fret not if you’re unfamiliar with the term functor; it’s a concept in category theory we will use implicitly without delving into the specific definition. This topic is, unfortunately, a little on the dry side but it’s a necessary evil to get … Continue reading

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