# Category Archives: Notes

## Exact Sequences and the Grothendieck Group

As before, all rings are not commutative in general. Definition. An exact sequence of R-modules is a collection of R-modules and a sequence of R-module homomorphisms: such that for all i. Examples 1. The sequence is exact if and only if f … Continue reading

## Krull-Schmidt Theorem

Here, we will prove that the process of decomposing is unique, given that M is noetherian and artinian. Again, R is a ring, possibly non-commutative. Definition. A decomposition of an R-module M is an expression for non-zero modules An R-module M is said … Continue reading

## Local Rings

Mathematicians are generally more familiar with the case of local commutative rings, so we’ll begin from there. Definition. A commutative ring R is said to be local if it has a unique maximal ideal. Note that every non-zero commutative ring has … Continue reading

Recall that the radical of the base ring R is called its Jacobson radical and denoted by J(R); this is a two-sided ideal of R. Earlier, we had proven that a ring R is semisimple if and only if it is artinian and J(R) = … Continue reading

## Composition Series

Positive integers can be uniquely factored as a product of primes. Here, we would like to prove a counterpart for modules. Now there are two ways to “factor” a module M; a more liberal way takes a submodule N which gives us composition … Continue reading

As mentioned in the previous article, we will now describe the “bad elements” in a ring R which stops it from being semisimple. Consider the following ring: Since R is finite-dimensional over the reals, it is both artinian and noetherian. However, R is not … Continue reading

## Noetherian and Artinian Rings and Modules

We saw the case of the semisimple ring R, which is a (direct) sum of its simple left ideals. Such a ring turned out to be nothing more than a finite product of matrix algebras. One asks if there is a … Continue reading

## The Group Algebra (III)

As alluded to at the end of the previous article, we shall consider the case where K is algebraically closed, i.e. every polynomial with coefficients in K factors as a product of linear polynomials. E.g. K = C is a common choice. Having assumed … Continue reading