# Tag Archives: unique factorisation

## Commutative Algebra 46

Properties of Dedekind Domains Throughout this article, A denotes a Dedekind domain. Proposition 1. Every fractional ideal of A can be written as where each is a maximal ideal. The expression is unique up to permutation of terms. Note In … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 17

Field of Fractions Throughout this article, A denotes an integral domain (which may not be a UFD). Definition. The field of fractions of A is an embedding of A into a field K, such that every element of K can be … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 16

Gcd and Lcm We assume A is an integral domain throughout this article. If A is a UFD, we can define the gcd (greatest common divisor) and lcm (lowest common multiple) of two elements as follows. For , we can write the … Continue reading

## Commutative Algebra 15

Unique Factorization Through this article and the next few ones, we will explore unique factorization in rings. The inspiration, of course, comes from ℤ. Here is an application of unique factorization. Warning: not all steps may make sense to the … Continue reading

## Krull-Schmidt Theorem

Here, we will prove that the process of decomposing is unique, given that M is noetherian and artinian. Again, R is a ring, possibly non-commutative. Definition. A decomposition of an R-module M is an expression for non-zero modules An R-module M is said … Continue reading

## Composition Series

Positive integers can be uniquely factored as a product of primes. Here, we would like to prove a counterpart for modules. Now there are two ways to “factor” a module M; a more liberal way takes a submodule N which gives us composition … Continue reading

## Topics in Commutative Rings: Unique Factorisation (3)

Example 1: The Gaussian Integers Z[i] Let’s pick the norm function N : Z[i]-{0} → N where N(a+bi) = (a+bi)(a–bi) = a2+b2. We know that N is a multiplicative function, i.e. N(r)N(s) = N(rs). Instead of checking this by brute force, we write N(x) = x·xc, where (a+bi)c = a-bi is the conjugate of a+bi. It’s easy to … Continue reading

## Topics in Commutative Rings: Unique Factorisation (2)

In the previous article, we imposed certain finiteness conditions on the ring (specifically a.c.c. on principal ideals: that every increasing sequence of principal ideals is eventually constant), then proved that unique factorisation holds if and only if all irreducible elements … Continue reading