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Tag Archives: primes
Commutative Algebra 17
Field of Fractions Throughout this article, A denotes an integral domain (which may not be a UFD). Definition. The field of fractions of A is an embedding of A into a field K, such that every element of K can be … Continue reading
Posted in Advanced Algebra
Tagged field of fractions, gauss lemma, krull dimension, primes, principal ideal domains, UFDs, unique factorisation
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Commutative Algebra 16
Gcd and Lcm We assume A is an integral domain throughout this article. If A is a UFD, we can define the gcd (greatest common divisor) and lcm (lowest common multiple) of two elements as follows. For , we can write the … Continue reading
Commutative Algebra 15
Unique Factorization Through this article and the next few ones, we will explore unique factorization in rings. The inspiration, of course, comes from ℤ. Here is an application of unique factorization. Warning: not all steps may make sense to the … Continue reading
Posted in Advanced Algebra
Tagged integral domains, irreducibles, noetherian, primes, UFDs, unique factorisation
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Primality Tests III
SolovayStrassen Test This is an enhancement of the Euler test. Be forewarned that it is in fact weaker than the RabinMiller test so it may not be of much practical interest. Nevertheless, it’s included here for completeness. Recall that to … Continue reading
Posted in Uncategorized
Tagged cryptography, elementary, jacobi symbol, legendre symbol, number theory, primality tests, primes, programming
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Primality Tests II
In this article, we discuss some ways of improving the basic Fermat test. Recall that for Fermat test, to test if n is prime, one picks a base a < n and checks if We also saw that this method would utterly fail … Continue reading
Posted in Uncategorized
Tagged carmichael numbers, cryptography, elementary, number theory, primality tests, primes, pseudoprimes
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Primality Tests I
Description of Problem The main problem we wish to discuss is as follows. Question. Given n, how do we determine if it is prime? Prime numbers have opened up huge avenues in theoretical research – the renowned Riemann Hypothesis, for … Continue reading
Posted in Uncategorized
Tagged carmichael numbers, cryptography, elementary, number theory, primality tests, primes, pseudoprimes
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Topics in Commutative Rings: Unique Factorisation (3)
Example 1: The Gaussian Integers Z[i] Let’s pick the norm function N : Z[i]{0} → N where N(a+bi) = (a+bi)(a–bi) = a2+b2. We know that N is a multiplicative function, i.e. N(r)N(s) = N(rs). Instead of checking this by brute force, we write N(x) = x·xc, where (a+bi)c = abi is the conjugate of a+bi. It’s easy to … Continue reading
Topics in Commutative Rings: Unique Factorisation (2)
In the previous article, we imposed certain finiteness conditions on the ring (specifically a.c.c. on principal ideals: that every increasing sequence of principal ideals is eventually constant), then proved that unique factorisation holds if and only if all irreducible elements … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged commutative rings, euclidean domains, irreducibles, prime ideals, primes, principal ideal domains, ring theory, rings, UFDs, unique factorisation
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Topics in Commutative Rings: Unique Factorisation (1)
Unique Factorisation: Basics Throughout this post, let R be an integral domain; recall that this means R is a commutative ring such that whenever ab=0, either a=0 or b=0. The simplest example of an integral domain is Z, the ring of integers. What’s of interest to … Continue reading
Posted in Notes
Tagged commutative rings, irreducibles, prime ideals, primes, ring theory, rings, UFDs, unique factorisation
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